If you are paid $600 or more dollars as an independent contractor by one company, that company should issue you a 1099-MISC by January 31 of the following year. The deadline can occasionally be later if January 31 falls on a Saturday or Sunday.
Likewise, if in your business you pay an independent contractor $600 or more, you must issue him or her a 1099 by that due date. You must file a copy with the IRS as well. See IRS 1099-MISC form for more details.
Note: If you are an employee that telecommutes from home, you should receive a W-2 form reporting your income and the taxes withheld, not a 1099.
Disclaimer: I am not a tax attorney, CPA or tax preparation specialist. The information here is meant as a general guide. For specific questions about your own taxes, please refer to IRS publications or consult a tax specialist.